From the perspective of building a comprehensive earthquake disaster mitigation and prevention system, we should be soberly aware that although earthquake warnings have certain disaster prevention and mitigation effects, they cannot be diluted or even replaced in other areas. While strengthening the construction of the earthquake early warning network, we must continue to strengthen education on earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation for the general public. During the development of urban and rural construction, strict implementation of relevant land use planning and building design standards conducive to earthquake prevention.
At 22:55 on June 17, 2019, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake occurred in Changning County (28.34 degrees north latitude, 104.90 degrees east longitude) in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, with a focal depth of 16 kilometers. At the time of the earthquake, many urban areas such as Yibin, Chengdu, and Chongqing issued early warnings of earthquakes. As of 15:30 on the 18th, 13 people were killed and 199 injured in the earthquake.
According to reports, the Continental Earthquake Early Warning Network jointly constructed by the Chengdu High-tech Disaster Reduction Institute and the emergency management department warned Yibin City 10 seconds in advance through TV, mobile phones, and dedicated earthquake warning terminals, and 31 seconds in advance to Guizhou, 124 kilometers away from the epicenter. Early warning of Bijie City, the province, to Chengdu in 61 seconds in advance. Although it is only 10 seconds or tens of seconds, the role of the earthquake warning reminder cannot be underestimated—waking up the family, running two steps tightly, hiding under the bed, even just bending over, turning over, will hurt people. The odds decrease.
Today, earthquakes are still unpredictable, but this does not mean that humans can only sit back and wait. Earthquake early warning systems play time difference and race against time—using the characteristics of seismic waves that travel slower than radio waves after an earthquake, quickly collecting epicenter signals after an earthquake, and issuing early warning prompts before earthquake waves arrive. After Mexico and Japan, our country now has such a system, and the fame of World War I is really exciting.
Studies have shown that if a warning is received 3 seconds before the earthquake wave arrives, the number of casualties can be reduced by 14%; the number of casualties can be reduced by 39% 10 seconds in advance; if there is an alert when the Wenchuan earthquake occurs, the number of deaths may be reduced by 20,000 to 30000. In other words, the greater the earthquake, the more prominent the role of this system; the further away from the epicenter, the more time there is to hedge. This is also an important reason why the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in Japan can reduce personal injuries to a very low level.
The magnitude of the role of the early warning reminder system depends not only on its accuracy and timeliness, but also on the success rate of information delivery. Take this time as an example, residents of many cities such as Yunnan and Sichuan have received early warning prompts through televisions, loud speakers, etc., and they have time to avoid risks, but they must also see that although many people have heard the countdown alarm, Basically unknown. It can be seen that the warning alert system needs to be further improved. On the one hand, it must increase the popularity and promotion so that more units and communities can receive the information in a timely manner; on the other hand, optimize the information transmission methods, such as the use of multiple notification methods, and the warning content is concise, Increase daily publicity and drills, etc. to convey as much danger as possible to everyone.
At the same time, we must emphasize that we should have a comprehensive, scientific, and rational understanding of the earthquake warning prompts, and we should not simply stay at the level of emotional and intuitive "moving" and "shock". Earthquake early warning is not earthquake prediction. Although there is only a word difference between the two, they are essentially different and cannot be confused at will. The early warning hint is that after the earthquake occurs, the seismic information sent to the surrounding area through the time difference is based on the principle that electromagnetic waves run faster than seismic waves. The actual disaster prevention and mitigation effect that can be produced by the warning of earthquake warning should be treated with rationality and prudence. It is necessary to give full attention to the value of early warning, and not to overstate it. As the experts said, the earthquake-stricken area is 20 kilometers away from the epicenter. People in these areas need early warning, but within 20 kilometers, the warning time difference is very short. For people in the hardest-hit areas, this kind of warning sometimes It doesn't make much sense.
In addition, from the perspective of building a comprehensive earthquake disaster mitigation and prevention system, we should be soberly aware that although earthquake warnings have certain disaster prevention and mitigation effects, they cannot be diluted or even replaced in other areas. While strengthening the construction of the earthquake early warning network, we must continue to strengthen education for earthquake prevention and mitigation for the general public. During the development of urban and rural construction, we must strictly implement relevant land use planning and building design standards that are conducive to earthquake prevention, and so on.
Earthquakes are rare incidents. Once they occur, they may cause huge damage and damage. This requires daily precautions and precautions. Especially, we must work hard on the details. How to help yourself in danger and ask for help. In this way, the function of the earthquake early warning system can be brought into full play, and the damage and loss caused by the earthquake can be reduced.
(Responsible editor: Duan Xingyu and Tong Zongli)
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